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时态和语态及虚拟语气,2015考研复试英语之听力小技巧

  时态和语态对于听力解题至关心器重要,听清了、精通了听力材质的时态,看清了题干和甄选的语态能够赶快解题。以下,跨考教育[微博]立陶宛语教学商讨室的助教们为我们整理了切实可行的答题思路。

首先节时态

  一、步骤

1.时态的分类:通常时;完结时;进行时。

  (1)先依照选项的差异点分明考题要点为时态,然后回来题句中寻找给出的或暗指的时光状语,减弱接收范围,进而选出准确答案;

1.1.一般时:

  (2)根据谓语动词与句子主语或非谓语动词与其论理主语的涉嫌,分明句子是风雨无阻语态仍然被动语态。

①日常以后时:

  二、要点

He writes a letter every day.

  1.之下几类动词日常无法用来进行时,同样不用于完结进行时:

②相像过去时:

  (1)表示感知的动词:hear, feel, notice, recognize, see, taste, smell;

He wrote a letter yesterday.

  (2)表示希望、心思的动词:desire, dislike, forgive, hate, like, love,
prefer, refuse, want, wish, fear, love, hate;

③雷同以后时:

  (3)表示思量、理念的动词:believe, doubt, expect, forget, hope, feel,
mean, know, agree, realize, mind, recall, recollect, remember, trust,
suppose;

He will write a letter tomorrow.

  (4)表示全部、据有的动词:belong to, owe, own, possess, hold(容纳);

1.2.完成时:

  (5)别的动词:cost, appear, concern, contain, consist, deserve,
matter, seem。

①现行反革命达成时:

  如:

He has written the letter.

  I’d say whenever you are going after something that is belonging to
you, anyone who is depriving you of the right to have it is criminal。

②过去到位时:

  (1997年考研[微博]题,
belong代表归属,不用于进行式)

He had written the letter when I came.

  He was seeing somebody creeping into the house through the open
window last night。

③将来成功时:

  (1989年考研题,see表示结果,不用于实行式)

He will have written the letter before I come.

  2. 决不will/shall表明以往时的形式:

1.3.进行时:

  (1)be going to表示未来的考虑和意图;

①大器晚成现在举行时:

  (2)arrive, come, drive, go, leave, retire, return, set off, start,
take off等代表移位的动词的举办体表示按安排确定要产生的未来动作;

He is writing a letter now.

  (3)be to (do)表示配置、安插、决定、命令或决定要发出的事,如:

②一了百了举办时:

  Greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if
food shortage is to be avoided。

He was writing a letter when I came.

  (4)be about to (do)表示就要(做),如:

③未来实行时:

  Marlin is a young man of independent thinking who is not about to
pay compliments to his political leaders。

He will be writing a letter when I come.

  (5)be on the point /verge of
(doing)表示“登时快要”,日常不与代表今后的时刻状语连用;

1.4.达成举行时:

  (6)be, begin, come, depart, get off, go, leave, return,
start的相符现在时表示按日历或时刻表要产生的今后动作或事件,如:

①现行反革命产生举行时:

  If you want your film to be properly processed, you’ll have to wait
and pick it up on Friday, which is the day after tomorrow。

He has been writing for two hours.

  (画线部分通常不要will be)

②千古成功进行时:when I called,he had been writing a letter for two
hours.

  (7)在时间、条件、妥洽从句中,通常今后年代替以往时,但要注意区分从句的品类,如:

2.运用相像以往时的火候:主语+经常以往时动词。

  I don’t know where he will go tomorrow.
笔者不清楚他前不久去哪儿。(宾语从句)

2.1.表知觉、状态、所有:

  I’ll tell him when you will ring again.
作者报告她你什么样时候再来电话。(宾语从句)

I smell something burning.

  比较:I’ll tell him when you ring
again。你再打电话时自身告诉她。(状语从句)

You look worried.

  (8)在make sure, make certain, see (to it)
后的that从句中,谓语动词用经常今后时期替以往时,如:

This medicine tasts bitter to me.

  See to it that you include in the paper whatever questions they
didn’t know the answer to last time。

He has a book.

  (include 不可能用will include或任何花样)

Your hands feel cold.

  3.完了时是时态测验的首要性,注意与落成时连用的句型和岁月状语:

I see a man standing there.

  (1)by/between/up to/till +过去时光、since、by the time/when
+代表过去时有发生处境的从句,主句用过去完毕时。如:

He is a student.

  We had just had our breakfast when an old man came to the door。

2.2.表习贯的动作,常以时间副词修饰:

  Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which
artificial beings were portrayed had been produced。

He goes to school every day.

  (表示一九二〇年时已发出的情景)

He writes a letter every day.

  (2)by +现在岁月、by the time/ when
+谓语动词是雷同现在时的从句,主句用现在做届时。如:

He always take a bus home.

  By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed in Europe for
two weeks。

2.3.表真理,事实,格言:

  I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come
back next year。

The sun rises in the east.

  (3)by now、since +过去岁月、in/during/for/over/the past/last
few(或具体数字)years/days/months,主句用现时形成时, 但在it is
+具体时刻since/before这一句型中,主句越多的时候绝不达成时。如:

He ,who is lazy is doomed to failure.=he, who is lazy is doomed to fail.

  The changes that howe taken place place in air travel during the
last sixty years would have seemed completely impossible to even the
most brilliant scientists at the turn of the 19th century。

Honest is the best policy.

  It is four years since John left school。

2.4.表现在:begin/start/arrive/go/come等动词用平常现在时表以后。Does he
come tomorrow?

  (4)在It is the
+序数词/形容词最高档+that的定语从句中,谓语动词常用现时成功时。如:

3.接收相同过去时的火候:主语+平时过去时动词

  It isn’t the first time that I have found myself in an embarrassing
situation。

3.1.表过去的动作、习于旧贯、状态:

  (5)在no sooner…than…,
hardly/scarcely…when/before…句型中,主句常用过去完毕时。

I saw him yesterday.

  (6)其余与完结时连用的日子状语:all this while, all this year, for
some time, so far, already, before, just, long, yet等。

He was born in 1978.

  4.成就进行时指动作在做届时的根底上还要继续下去。如:

3.2.表过去的涉世(也可用今后造成时卡塔尔国:

  The company has been promising a rise in salary for ages, but
nothing has happened。

Did you ever see her before?=Have you ever see her before?

  The school board listened quietly as John read the demand that his
followers had been demonstrating for。

3.3.句中若有before,after,until等连词引导的从句,由于岁月前后相继很明亮,可用常常过2018年代替过去到位时。

  文章来源:跨考教育

4.用平日以后时的时机:主语+will+原形动词表现在要产生的动作或状态。

It will rain tomorrow.

注意:①由连词when,unless,if,once等所辅导的状语从句表示某条件要用日常今后时,主句要用日常未来时。

When I have money,I will buy a car.

②be going to=will

He is going to come.=he will come.

5.采取今后产生时的机遇:

主语+have+p.p.(have译作:曾经)

5.1.用于代表到今日达成实现的动作:

I have just finished my work.

5.2.用于代表到如今结束的经历,

I have met him several times.

5.3.用于代表到现行反革命得了仍在接二连三的动作或气象:

I have lived here 10 years.

She has studied English since 2000.

注意:表“曾去过”的资历时,用“have been”而非“have gone”

He has gone toHong Kong.已经去了,以后人在香江;he has been to Hong
Kong.曾去过,将来又赶回了。

6.千古做到时的时机:主语+had+p.p.(had译作已经,或早就卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)用以代表停止过去某时所变成的动作或涉世。

He had studied English for10 years before he left for the States.

He told me that he had seen the movies
once.注意过去产生时不可能独立存在,必须有类同过去时从句或表过去的小运副词短语连用方可彰显出分歧时期爆发的二种动作。

I lost the book which she had given me.

7.应用以往形成时的火候:

主语+will
have+p.p.译作“将早就”,表示到后天某时已经实现或仍在一而再再而三张开的动作或阅世等。

He will have arrived in Chicago by this time tomorrow.

When you come ,everything will have been finished.

8.应用今后实行时的机缘:主语+is/am/are+将来分词

①用以象征正在做的动作。

I am doing laundry.

②用以象征将要发生的动作,常与表未来的时光副词连用。

He is coming today.=he will be coming today.

9.利用过去举行时的机缘:主语+was/were+未来分词①代表过去某时正在做的动作:

He was taking a bath when you called.

②表日常过去时中就要爆发的事:

He was dying=he was going to die.=he was about to die.

10.使用未来实行时的机遇:主语+willbe+以往分词,表于以往某时将开展的动作。

He will be reading book this time tomorrow.

11.运用以后完毕进行时的机缘:主语+have/has
been+现在分词,译作“平昔都在”,表示一贯世襲到前几日且仍将继续下去的动作。

She has been working with this company for 5 years.

12.施用过去实现实行时的空子:主语+had
been+将来分词,译作“一贯都在”,表示一直世襲到千古某时,并且此时仍在这里起彼伏扩充的动作。要在意的是:与过去产生时后生可畏致,无法独立存在,须有相仿过去时连用。

I had been sleeping when he came.

13.运用以后到位进行时的空子:主语+will have
been+今后分词,译作“将一直在”,表一向到今后某时,仍将持续的动作。

I will have been studying English for ten yearsby the end of this year.

14.时态的前后生机勃勃致

14.1主句即便平时未来时,从句不能够用过去做届期和过去做到进行时,别的均可。

14.2.主句若为通常过去时,则从句不可能用表将来和以后的时态。

14.3.从句表示真理时,恒用常常以往时,不必与主句意气风发致。

15.”for+大器晚成段时间”与成就时的涉嫌:

(for/during/in/through/down through卡塔尔 the (past/last卡塔尔国five
years.=since five years
ago.自从5年前起,那一个短语与前不久完毕时或今后落成举行时连用。

I have been studying English for the past two weeks.

16.since和成功时的涉嫌:

①表“自从”时,可作介词,之后接名词只怕动名词②since也可作副词连词教导平时过去时的状语从句,主句用现时到位时或以后到位实行时。

I have been studying English since I went to college.

He has lived here since 2000.

③since以往接明显的时点作宾语,不能接时段作宾语

④since后只要时段,一定要方今过后加ago。

Peter has lived here since two years ago.

⑤现行反革命完成时和当今实现进行时的动词与”for+风度翩翩段时间”连用时,该动词所表示动作必得可总是开展。不然接纳下列结构本领与since连用:it
is+风华正茂段时间+since+非三回九转动词/时点

It is twenty years since he married.

其次节语态

1.语态的花色:分主动语态和被动语态二种,用于被动语态的总得是及物动词。

2.授予动词有二种被动语态:

I gave him a book.(主动)

①He was given a book by me.(被动)

②A book was given him by me.(被动)

3.动词+介词结构,也可造成被动语态:

They laugh at me.→I was laughed at by them.

Police looked into the case.→The case was looked into by police.

4.否定句的被动语态

They don’t love him.→He is not loved by them.

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