Menu

读书笔记澳门新葡亰:,先声后实



  6.科学事业=scientific enterprise

个人感觉奥地利学派和新古典经济学,犹如海洋法系和大陆法系的差别,但是这样的差别虽然只是表面上的看似较小,实质上确非常的巨大。基于这样差别的本源,是否有必要引出一套企业管理的理论,以及怎么样的一套理论,都是值得慢慢思考的问题,现在谈的比较多的阿米巴经营、互联网公司的扁平化管理架构、智力型服务公司的合伙人制等等,都是这个方向的探索。

  早动手的具体方法

We  could also cite, following Polanyi, the example of a person who is
learning to ride a bicycle and attempts to maintain their balance by
moving the handlebars to the side toward which they begin to fall,
creating in this way a centrifugal force which tends to keep the bicycle
upright; yet almost no cyclist is aware of or familiar with the physical
principles behind this ability. On the contrary, what the cyclist
actually uses is a “sense of balance”, which in some way informs them
how to behave at each moment to keep from falling. Polanyi goes so far
as to assert that tacit knowledge is in fact the dominant principle of
all knowledge (Polanyi 1959, 24–5). Even the most highly formalized and
scientific knowledge invariably follows from an intuition or an act of
creation, which are simply manifestations of tacit knowledge. Moreover
the new knowledge we can acquire through formulas, books, charts, maps
and so on is important mainly because it helps us to reorganize our
entire framework of practical, entrepreneurial information from
different and increasingly rich and valuable perspectives, which in turn
opens up new possibilities for the exercise of creative intuition.
 Therefore the impossibility of articulating practical knowledge
manifests itself not only “statically”, in the sense that any apparently
articulated statement contains information only insofar as it is
interpreted through a combination of prior, inarticulable beliefs and
knowledge, but also “dynamically”, since the mental process used in any
attempt at formalized articulation is itself essentially tacit,
inarticulable knowledge.

  9.成功的学术生涯的先决条件=a prerequisite for a successful academic
career

Economics is not about things and tangible material objects; it is about
men, their meanings and actions. Goods, commodities, and wealth and all
the other notions of conduct are not elements of nature; they are
elements of human meaning and conduct. He who wants to deal with them
must not look at the external world; he must search for them in the
meaning of acting men. (Mises 1996, 92)

  1.bewildering令人眼花缭乱的

澳门新葡亰 1

  4.支配语法=dictate a grammar

Luis Saravia de la Calle, who was the first to shed light on the true
relationship between prices and costs in the market. Saravia de la Calle
asserted that in any case, costs tend to follow prices and not vice
versa.  Thus he was before his time in exposing the errors of the
objective theory of value, which the theorists of the English classical
school would later develop, and which would provide the foundation for
the exploitation theory of Karl Marx and his socialist successors. In
his work,  Instrucción de mercaderes (Instruction to Merchants),
published in Spanish in Medina del Campo around the year 1544, Saravia
de la Calle writes: Those who gauge the just price of an article by the
labor, costs, and risks borne by the person who deals in or produces the
merchandise are seriously mistaken; for the just price springs from the
abundance or lack of goods, merchants, and money, and not from costs,
labor, and risks. (Saravia de la Calle 1949, 53)

  按照搭配的方式来学习这些考点词汇,你不仅加深了这些考点词汇的记忆效果,更重要的是你也掌握了这些考点词汇的用法,在写作中更能体现地道的英文表达。

在社会结构中,企业家是负责盈利的(以盈利为目标导向),消费者是负责购买的(以购买为目标导向),企业家和消费者在进行多伦博弈之后,逐渐产生了一种共赢方案,一个独立的第三方暴力垄断机构:政府。从企业家和消费者对立的角度而言,其实可以产生非常多的政治制度解决方案,比如企业家投票组成的参院和消费者投票产生的众院等等,在非联邦制下面是否可以考虑也是蛮有意思的脑洞。

  2.cognitive认知的

巴别塔经哲读书会3月份的要求阅读书目,本书形如奥地利经济学派的简介手册,让读者对学派有一个全面的了解,书中重点和新古典经济学派、社会主义进行了系统的差异性分析,列举了学派发展的历史阶段和关键人物,读的英文版,大量的专业性词汇也是边读边背。

  7.阻止和消除饥饿=stem and eradicate hunger

In short, the Scholastics of the Spanish Golden  Age were able to
articulate what would later become the key theoretical principles of the
 Austrian school of economics, specifically: first, the subjective
theory of value (Diego de Covarrubias y Leyva); second, the correct
relationship between prices and costs (Luis Saravia de la Calle); third,
the dynamic nature of the market and the impossibility of realizing the
equilibrium model (Juan de Lugo and Juan de Salas); fourth, the dynamic
concept of competition understood as a process of rivalry between
sellers (Castillo de Bovadilla and Luis de Molina); fifth, the principle
of time preference (rediscovered by Martín de  Azpilcueta); sixth, the
profoundly distorting effect inflation exerts on the real economy (Juan
de Mariana, Diego de Covarrubias and Martín de  Azpilcueta); seventh,
the critical analysis of fractional-reserve banking (Luis Saravia de la
Calla and Martín de  Azpilcueta); eighth, the recognition that bank
deposits form part of the money supply (Luis de Molina and Juan de
Lugo); ninth, the impossibility of organizing society via coercive
commands, since the information necessary to give such commands a
coordinating quality is lacking (Juan de Mariana); and tenth, the
libertarian tradition that all unjustified intervention in the market
constitutes a violation of natural law (Juan de Mariana).

  7.enterprise事业

Jesús Huerta de Soto Ballester (Madrid, 1956) is a Spanish economist
of the Austrian School. He is a professor in the Department of Applied
Economics at King Juan Carlos University of Madrid, Spain and a Senior
Fellow at the Ludwig von Mises Institute.
Huerta de Soto received a bachelor’s degree in economics in 1978 and a
PhD in economics in 1992, from Complutense University. His MBA in
actuarial science is from Stanford University, 1985. In 2000 he became
a full professor of Political Economy at Universidad Rey Juan Carlos
in Madrid.
Huerta de Soto was Editor of seven volumes of the Spanish language
version of the University of Chicago Press’s The Collected Works of
F.A. Hayek. In that capacity, he was responsible for bibliographies,
footnotes, introductions, and hiring translators. He is a member of
the editorial board of New Perspectives on Political Economy and on
the advisory editorial board of the Journal of Markets and Morality.
Huerta de Soto is a Senior Fellow of the Ludwig von Mises Institute
and is on the editorial board of its Quarterly Journal of Austrian
Economics. He was formerly a Trustee of the Madrid Institute for
Advanced Studies (IMDEA) in social sciences and was a vice-president
and director of the Mont Pelerin Society from 2000 to 2004.

  3.有限的起源=constrained beginnings

Let us suppose that Robinson Crusoe has just arrived on his island and
spends his time picking berries from bushes by hand, his only means of
subsistence. Each day he devotes all of his efforts to gathering
berries, and he picks enough to survive and can even eat a few extra
daily.  After several weeks on this diet Robinson Crusoe makes the
entrepreneurial discovery that with a wooden stick several meters long,
he could reach higher and further, strike the bushes with force and
gather many more berries in far less time.  The only problem is that he
estimates it could take him five whole days to find a suitable tree from
which to take the stick and then prepare it by removing its branches,
leaves and imperfections. During this time he would be compelled to
interrupt his berry picking. If he wishes to act on his idea and produce
the stick, he will have to somewhat reduce his consumption of berries
for a number of days and store the remainder in a basket until he has
enough to survive for five days, the predicted duration of the wooden
stick’s production process.  After planning his action Robinson Crusoe
decides to undertake it, and therefore he must first save a portion of
the berries he picks by hand each day, thus reducing his consumption by
that amount.  This clearly represents an inevitable sacrifice, which he
nevertheless deems well worth his effort in relation to the goal he
longs to achieve. So he decides to reduce his consumption (in other
words, to save) for ten days, let us say, while storing his leftover
berries in a basket until he has accumulated an amount that he estimates
will be sufficient to sustain him while he produces the stick.

  12.unfold打开,阐明

澳门新葡亰 2

  10.prerequisite先决条件

澳门新葡亰 3

  如果孤立的去记这些单词,会发现根本记不住,转眼就忘了。那么不妨换一种方式来学习词汇,叫作“读透真题记搭配”。还是拿真题中的词举例:

澳门新葡亰 4

  我们给你的建议是:从历年真题切入。很多考生不明白,一模一样的原题不会出,为什么历年真题那么重要?那是因为虽然原题不会再现,但是真理里包含的考点的重复率却是非常高的。通过对历年真题的分析和统计,可以说,超过90%的考点都是在以前的真题中出现过的,所以早动手,从历年真题切入。

Hayek always wished to avoid involvement in politics. Furthermore he
considered the role of the intellectual, who must make scientific truth
their chief goal in life, to be incompatible with the role of the
politician, who is always obliged to yield to the dictates of public
opinion to secure votes (Hayek 1991, 45). Hence Hayek believed that in
the long term, efforts directed toward convincing intellectuals (thus
his great success in founding the classical liberal Mont Pèlerin
Society) or influencing public opinion would be much more productive.
(Hayek dissuaded  Anthony Fisher from entering politics and convinced
him that it would be much more useful to create the Institute of
Economic  Affairs, and later the  Atlas Research Foundation, to spread
classical liberal ideas throughout the world.) So without the strategic
initiatives that Hayek took, it would have been impossible to conceive
of the change in public opinion and in the intellectual sphere which led
to the fall of the Berlin  Wall and to the free market/conservative
revolution that took place in the USA under Ronald Reagan and in the UK
under Margaret  Thatcher, a revolution which has exerted, and continues
to exert, such a powerful influence on a worldwide scale.

  认真统计历年考研[微博]英语的真题后,会发现,真题中反复考核的重点包括以下三类词汇:1.实义动词;2.抽象名词;3.形容词与副词。所以,有针对性地学习历年真题中这三类词汇能对备考效率和考试分数直接产生巨大的帮助。让我们先拿真题做个比较。

Between 1920 and 1934 Mises organized, directed and held a famous
economics seminar (Privatseminar) in his official office at the  Vienna
Chamber of Commerce, where he was chief of the finance department and
general secretary, and where his involvement gave Mises a strong
influence over the economic policy of his country.  This seminar, which
was held on Friday evenings, was attended not only by students who were
preparing their doctoral theses under Mises’s guidance, but also, via
invitation, by highly prestigious economists from all over the world.
 The seminar meetings were attended regularly by Friedrich  A. Hayek,
Fritz Machlup, Gottfried von Haberler, Oskar Morgenstern, Paul L.M.
Rosenstein-Rodan, Felix Kaufmann, Alfred Schutz, Richard von Strigl,
Karl Menger (the mathematician son of Carl Menger, founder of the
 Austrian school) and Erich  Voegelin, among the German-speaking
participants. From the UK and the USA, Lionel Robbins, Hugh Gaitskell,
Ragnar Nurske and  Albert G. Hart attended, among others. Later, in the
USA, Mises again offered his seminar at New  York University, where it
was held on  Thursday evenings from the autumn of 1948 to the spring of

  好习惯是攀登胜利巅峰的阶梯,好习惯是开启成功之门的要是!好习惯不应该在脑海中“雪藏”,而是要执着践行。还在等什么,赶快行动起来吧!从今天起,让我们一起“读透真题记搭配”,让背单词变得更简单更轻松。

Very early on, the young Menger realized that the classical theory of
price determination, as  Adam Smith and his  Anglo-Saxon followers had
formulated it, left much to be desired. Menger’s  personal observations
of the functioning of the stock market (during one period he was a stock
market correspondent for the  Wiener Zeitung), along with his own
research, led him to write at 31 years of age, in, according to Hayek,
“a state of morbid excitement” (Hayek 1992, 69), the book which would
officially give birth to the  Austrian school of economics. In this book
the author strove to establish the new foundations upon which he
believed it was necessary to rebuild all economic science. These
principles essentially included the development of an economic science
which would always rest on “man”, viewed as a creative actor and the
protagonist of all social processes and events (subjectivism), as well
as, for the first time in the history of economic thought, the
formulation, based on subjectivism, of an entire formal theory on the
spontaneous emergence and evolution of all social (economic, legal and
linguistic) institutions, understood as established behavior patterns.
 All of these ideas are incorporated in the book, Principles of
Economics, which Menger published in 1871, and which would become one of
the most influential works in the history of economic thought.

  1.各种令人眼花缭乱的食物=the bewildering variety of
foods,其中variety表示“种类,多样性”。

It is clear that, just as the difference between the “rich” Robinson
Crusoe with the stick and the “poor” Robinson Crusoe without it lay in
the capital good the former had obtained through prior saving, the
essential difference between rich societies and poor societies does not
stem from any greater effort that the former devote to work, nor even
from any greater technological knowledge that the former hold. Instead
it arises mainly from the fact that rich nations possess a more
extensive network of capital goods wisely invested from an
entrepreneurial standpoint.  These goods consist of machines, tools,
computers, software, buildings, semi-manufactured goods and so on, and
they exist due to prior saving by the nation’s citizens.

  很多考生感觉自己付出很多,但最后却没能成功。其实,他们的失败只因为没有早动手,导致最后很多考点都来不及学习。下面我们就一起探讨早动手的切入点及其基本方法。

作者:Jesús Huerta de Soto
来源:下载的PDF电子版

  8.eradicate消除

上次参加鲁克阿兰德读书会活动的时候提到的一个问题,关于垄断和创新之间是否存在矛盾性,可以进一步延展到奥地利学派设想的经济环境下讨论:自由市场环境下(不存在任何机构性强迫),企业的垄断行为是否会减少创新行为的发生?这样的环境下专利和垄断的关系是怎么样的?企业家精神和创新的关系之间是否有必然的关联?

  早动手的切入点

Thus the key importance of not disregarding anyone’s entrepreneurship.
Even the humblest people, those of the lowest social status or most
lacking in formal knowledge, will exclusively possess at least small
bits or pieces of knowledge and information which can be of decisive
value in the course of social events. From this standpoint, it is
obvious that our concept of entrepreneurship is of an essentially
humanistic nature, a concept which makes economics, as it is understood
and advanced by members of the  Austrian school, the quintessential
humanistic science.

标签:

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注

相关文章

网站地图xml地图